Flipped Teaching

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= a form of learning in which students learn new content online by watching video lectures at home, and what used to be homework is now done in class instead of lecturing [1]

Contents

Definition

"Flip teaching (or flipped classroom) is a form of blended learning in which students learn new content online by watching video lectures, usually at home, and what used to be homework (assigned problems) is now done in class with teacher offering more personalized guidance and interaction with students, instead of lecturing. This is also known as backwards classroom, reverse instruction, flipping the classroom and reverse teaching." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flip_teaching)


History

"Eric Mazur developed peer instruction in the 1990s. He found that computer-aided instruction allowed him to coach instead of lecture. Lage, Platt and Treglia published the paper "Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment" in 2000. In 1993, King published "From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side" in College Teaching, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Winter, 1993), pp. 30–35. Baker presented "The classroom flip: using web course management tools to become the guide by the side" at the 11th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning. Baker's article presents the model of classroom flipping.

Starting in fall 2000, the University of Wisconsin-Madison used eTeach software to replace lectures in a computer science course with streaming video of the lecturer and coordinated slides. In 2011, two centers at Wisconsin Collaboratory for Enhanced Learning were built to focus on flipped and blended learning.

In 2004, Salman Khan began to record videos at the request of a younger cousin who felt that recorded lessons would let her skip parts she had mastered and replay parts that were troubling her. Khan’s model essentially provides one-to-one tutoring. Khan Academy videos are used as part of some educators' flipped teaching strategy.

In the "The Classroom Flip" (2006), Tenneson and McGlasson presented an approach for teachers considering whether to flip their classrooms and how various approaches could enhance their teaching process, along. It also explores computer course management systems. In 2007, Jeremy Strayer published his dissertation research conducted at The Ohio State University entitled "The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: a comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system." This study highlighted the importance of attending to the ways the coordination of out-of-class and in-class activities can positively and negatively influence how students engage course tasks." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flip_teaching)


Example

Clintondale High School

"Three years ago, Clintondale High School, just north of Detroit, became a “flipped school” — one where students watch teachers’ lectures at home and do what we’d otherwise call “homework” in class. Teachers record video lessons, which students watch on their smartphones, home computers or at lunch in the school’s tech lab. In class, they do projects, exercises or lab experiments in small groups while the teacher circulates.

Clintondale was the first school in the United States to flip completely — all of its classes are now taught this way. Now flipped classrooms are popping up all over. Havana High School outside of Peoria, Ill., is flipping, too, after the school superintendent visited Clintondale. The principal of Clintondale says that some 200 school officials have visited." (http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/09/turning-education-upside-down/)


Discussion

Reverse Teaching Exacerbates the Digital Divide

Matt Amaral:

" the digital divide is not only still here, it is the biggest it’s ever been and getting bigger every day.Think about it like this. If you didn’t have a computer at home 15 years ago, you weren’t that far behind the rest of the world. Sure, it sucked, and you were missing out on a lot of really funny cat videos, but it probably wasn’t keeping you from completing everyday tasks. You weren’t lost in the dark.Now take today’s world. Can you imagine the life of anyone who doesn’t have a computer at home, let alone a computer with an Internet connection? What about someone who can’t PRINT? In 2013 that is like saying “I have never owned shoes.” If you don’t have a computer today, you are so far behind the rest of the world you might never catch up.

Unfortunately I just described a hell of a lot of my students.

Flipping classrooms sounds like it does some good things, although I still maintain it doesn’t do anything good teachers don’t already do. Good teachers are already up on their feet getting to every student every day. Good teachers don’t let the silent students fail because they are afraid to ask questions. Good teachers already use technology and creative lesson planning to reach all learning styles and abilities. In fact I will claim right here that grades are going up in flipped classrooms because it essentially eliminates homework. The gains in pass-rates are simple and something many of us have already done: Eliminate homework, and your rate of failing students goes from 50 percent to 10 percent. Students can’t do homework if they don’t have a home in which to do it – the playing field is so uneven it can be aptly described as mountainous.

So let’s slow down with the technological aspirations for a minute and get real. Flipped classrooms sound great for rich kids with Internet access at home. Poor kids aren’t going to be watching videos at home because they don’t have computers, printers, the Internet, or smartphones. Many don’t even have homes. The schools they go to don’t have computers either. Our actual public school students are already so far behind affluent districts it is scary, and the gulf is widening with every smartphone upgrade and each new app that comes out.

So what’s my answer?

We need to see where the money in education is going. We spend more per student than any other nation on earth, yet if you walk into a public school classroom you would think we spent the least. Our campuses look like jails. The water faucets don’t work. There’s no Tech. No computer labs. Many teachers at my school don’t have the ability to show the Internet on their screen at the front of the room. Some still use overhead projectors. Talking to public school teachers about all the money in education is like talking to an archaeologist about Bigfoot. From what we can see, THERE IS NO MONEY supporting real teachers in our toughest schools.

And you wanna talk about flipping classrooms? That’s flipping ridiculous." (http://www.tikkun.org/tikkundaily/2013/10/21/a-teachers-rant-why-flipping-classrooms-is-flipping-ridiculous/)