Category:Urbanism

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Category for city-related pages, urbanism, architectural trends.

The P2P Foundation supports efforts towards Peer-to-Peer Urbanism and Commons-based Urbanism, (i.e. Komunal or common land approaches).

We also particularly appreciate the P2P-Urbanism approach taken by Nikos Salingaros, Gruppo Salingaros and other bio-urbanist friends.

  • Prototype for Open Source Urbanism‎: must-read landmark essay by Alberto Corsin Jimenez , on how our cities are changing in the p2p urbanism era, with an in-depth case study of Madrid.


Contents

Introduction

Gonzalo Jose Lopez [1]:


"In computer science, the term “peer-to-peer” refers to a network formed by a series of nodes that behave as equal to each other, acting both as clients and servers for the other network nodes, allowing direct exchange of information.


This is a theoretical movement, emerged from informal settlements and self-constructed architecture, considering these processes as beneficial for the evolution of the urban environment and returning to the user the participation and the decision making power that was lost.


It tries to accommodate the different practices that are currently appearing in the urban discipline, some of which I have spoken here before, as the tactical urbanism, the spontaneous city or crowdfunding, among others.


All of them based on a horizontal urbanism, bottom-up projects, with the common feature of requiring the commitment and participation of citizens involved in the process."


Characteristics:


"In Urbanism, the application of this term has led to a movement that draws on the principles of open source and is defined in 5 points:


1. The human being has the right to choose the built environment in which to live.


2. All citizens should have access to information regarding their environment in order to engage in processes of decision making.


3. Users should participate in all levels of co-design and construction of their city.


4. P2P Urbanism practitioners are committed to spreading knowledge about open source technologies and theories.


5. The owners of the built environment should be able to implement the development of knowledge, skills and practices on it."


Sharing Cities and Regions

Movements


Policies

  • As a eBook "Guide": Policies for Shareable Cities: A Sharing Economy Policy Primer for Urban Leaders. Shareable and Sustainable Economies Law Center, 2013. 40 pages. [3]

Examples

  1. Sharing City Seoul ; Share Hub Korea; Seoul Metropolitan Government Act for Promoting Sharing.
  2. Open Commons Region Linz
  3. The urban region of Bordeaux in France is making the 'collaborative economy' the central theme of its future territorial development.
  4. Edinburgh Cooperative Capital Policy Strategies
  5. Helsinki Open Data City
  6. The Barcelona Pledge for a Fab City ? See: Fab Cities and the Barcelona 5.0 Plan


Italy

USA

Maps

Directory

Sampled from a more comprehensive list compiled by Mira Luna for Shareable [5]:

  1. Ann Arbor Sharing Economy
  2. Sharing City Berlin
  3. Boulder Sharing Economy
  4. Sharing City Graz
  5. Helsinki Commons
  6. Mappa Alternativa di Napoli

Citations

We have fractured these urban networks, and rebuilt much more dispersed, “dendritic” systems, connected not by pedestrians, but by automobiles, dispersed suburban campuses and parks, and single-family monocultures, supplemented by telephones and now, computers. The majority of us lives in encapsulated houses, in encapsulated neighborhoods, and travel in encapsulated cars to encapsulated work places, stores and other destinations.

- Michael Mehaffy [6]


"There are two types of smart city. The P2P smart city, which enables citizens to exchange information directly with each other. Then there's the panoptic smart city, in which data is centralised, manipulated, and then used to control city functions."

- David Week, FB 30/9/2014

Key Resources

  • Ranking of Top 50 influencers, projects, professionals and cities active on Twitter seeking and sharing Ideas, Strategies, References and Solutions for Resilient, Liveable and Shareable Cities. [7]

The article mentions the following:

  1. Open-data initiatives and hackathons, like New York City's BigApps competition
  2. Parking apps that show drivers where the nearest available parking spot it.
  3. Apps that let users "adopt" city property so the city doesn't have to spend money sending personnel to tend to them.
  4. High-tech waste management systems. Pay As You Throw (PAYT) garbage disposal would encourage people to recycle more and waste less
  5. All-digital and easy-to-use parking payment systems -- think EZ-pass for parking.
  6. A city guide app, with information about museums, parks, landmarks, public art, restaurants
  7. Touchscreens around the city
  8. Wi-Fi in subway stations and on trains
  9. Sustainable and energy efficient residential and commercial real estate.
  10. Dynamic kiosks that display real-time information, concerning traffic, weather and local news, like Urbanflow in Helsinki.
  11. App or social media-based emergency alert and crisis response systems -- every citizen should have access to vital information
  12. Police forces that use real-time data to monitor and prevent crime.
  13. More public transit, high-speed trains, and bus rapid transit (BRT) to help citizens traverse the city with speed and low emissions.
  14. OLED lights and surveillance in high-crime zones, like the 24/7 system coming to Kolkata
  15. Charging stations, like the solar-powered Strawberry Tree in Serbia. They also function as bus stops and Wi-Fi hot spots.
  16. Roofs covered with solar panels or gardens. You could even generate solar energy on bike paths, like Amsterdam's SolaRoad.
  17. Bike-sharing programs, like in Paris, Washington, D.C., and the ones coming to Los Angeles and New York.
  18. A sharing economy, instead of a buying economy. If we share or rent from each other, we each need to buy and store fewer goods -- think Rent the Runway, Netflix, Airbnb.
  19. Smart climate control systems in homes and businesses, for example, the Nest thermostat.
  20. Widespread use of traffic rerouting apps, such as Greenway and Waze.
  21. Water-recycling systems
  22. Crowdsourced urban planning, like Brickstarter.
  23. Broadband Internet access for all citizens
  24. Mobile payments. Everywhere. For food, apparel and public transportation.
  25. Ride-sharing programs

Key Articles

  1. Peer-to-Peer Themes and Urban Priorities for the Self-organizing Society. By Nikos A. Salingaros. University of Texas at San Antonio. A contribution from April 26, 2010.
  2. A Brief History of P2P-Urbanism. Great intro by Nikos A. Salingaros & Federico Mena-Quintero
  3. Stefano Serafini on the Emergence of Biourbanism
  4. Pulska Grupa: P2P Urbanism: From Exclusion to Autonomy‎
  5. Design for a Post-Neoliberal City. Jesko Fezer. e-flux journal 17, 06/2016. [8] "From being strategic sites for the implementation of neoliberal policy, cities may possibly become a new political arena for experiments in democracy—and thus require a new design.
  6. Adaptive Architecture, Collaborative Design, and the Evolution of Community: Text by Eric Hunting, on the future of a p2p-based 'Adaptive Architecture'.
  7. David Barrie: Towards Open Source Place-Making
  8. Codes and the Architecture of Life. By Michael Mehaffy
  9. Jason F. Mclennan. The Urban Agriculture Revolution. Bringing Food into Living Cities. http://www.urbanfarmhub.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/urban-agriculture-revolution.pdf]: An important and sensible overview of why this is happening.
  10. The Radical Technology of Christopher Alexander. By Michael Mehaffy and Nikos Salingaros. Introduction to the Pattern Language work inspiring the P2P urbanistic community.
  11. Urban Public Spaces as Commons: Article: CHALLENGE OF NEW COMMONS – URBAN PUBLIC SPACES . Veronika Poklembovái, Tatiana Kluvánková-Oravskáii, Maroš Finkaiii. [9]: "In this paper we are critically discussing with existing literature and case studies the applicability and relevance of the design principles for urban public spaces as urban commons."


  • More on the bio-urbanistic work of Nikos A. Salingaros (and Michael Mehaffy), in an ongoing series in Metropolis magazine:


  1. Øyvind Holmstad's introduction
  2. Series accessible via http://www.metropolismag.com/pov/author/nikos
  3. The Radical Technology of Christopher Alexander
  4. The Sustainable Technology of Christopher Alexander
  5. The Pattern Technology of Christopher Alexander
  6. The Living Technology of Christopher Alexander
  7. The “Wholeness-Generating” Technology of Christopher Alexander


  • How-To:
  1. How to Start a Housing Co-op (U.S.)

Key Blogs and Websites


Key Books

  • Common Ground in a Liquid City: Essays in Defense of an Urban Future. Matt Hern. AK Press, 2009. [10]: If we want to preserve what's still left of the natural world, we need to stop using so much of it. And cities are the best chance we have left for a sustainable future ... but only if they remain vibrant, dynamic spaces that are unfolded by millions of people working together—and not by master plans and planners. What will it take to make our cities truly sustainable?
  • (e)Book: How to Design Our World for Happiness. The Commons Guide to Placemaking, Public space, and Enjoying a Convivial Life. By Jay Walljasper and On the Commons, 2013. [11]


Key People

Key Tags

  1. http://del.icio/mbauwens/P2P-Urbanism
  2. http://del.icio/mbauwens/P2P-Architecture
  3. http://del.icio/mbauwens/P2P-Neighborhoods
  4. http://del.icio/mbauwens/P2P-Cities


Key Projects


Open Source Building and Housing Projects

Updated list via [12]:

  1. Auram CEB Block System] developed at Auroville India: This is the most advanced CEB block system in existence. Sort-of open in that they claim the technology is offered free to the world to use, but don't publish exact plans for anything
  2. Backcountry Boiler - kickstarter supported long tail manufacturing of an ultralight outdoor kettle
  3. Contraptor: aiming to create an open-design construction set,
  4. DIY Magic Mirror - An Arduino, open source based interactive Magic Mirror with home automation and Halloween features.
  5. Fragment Store]: modular self-combined fragments of design furniture
  6. Freebus - an Open Source Home Automation System
  7. Good Stove, open source stove for the poor
  8. Grid Beam Building System, reuseable parts for building
  9. Hexayurt, an open source disaster relief shelter
  10. Ikea Hacker Do it yourself blog on the base of corporate products
  11. Liberator, aka "Open Farm Tech's Liberator Compressed Earth Block machine; [13]
  12. Makerbeam
  13. MIT House-n 'chassis' system
  14. Movisi Open Design Furniture
  15. [http://wiki.openhardware.org/Catalog:One_Day_Chair One Day Chair: Chair design for a CNC cutter
  16. Open Architecture Network
  17. Open Remote, an Open Domotics community
  18. Open Sailing: modular marine architecture
  19. Open Source Construction Systems
  20. Open Source Geopolymer Cast Stone Construction; eopolymer House blog [14]
  21. Open Source Cooling: KippKitts is designing open-source low-voltage (24V), high-efficiency (@2A) DC cooling units (air-conditioner/cpu cooler/refigeration) [15]
  22. Open Source House: 2 project; most recent is here
  23. Open Source Induction Furnace Project
  24. Open Source Washing Machine OSWASH
  25. Open Straw is an Open Source Prefab Strawbale House that can be built for $7k [16]
  26. WikiHouse: fabricated from locally sourced plywood cut on a CNC mill from openly shared template files, and assembled with minimal skill by local people.

Key Videos

See also:

  1. Stavros Stavrides on Inventing Open Institutions and Spaces of Sharing‎
  2. Saki Bailey on Governing the Wealth of Urban Commons Beyond Ownership
  3. Alex Haché and Marcell Mars on the Evolution from Digital to Urban Commons‎
  4. Pier Paolo Fanesi on the Experience in Common Governance Through Participatory Budgetting in Grottammare Municipality‎

Pages in category "Urbanism"

The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 537 total.

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