Light beats heavy. Open beats closed. Free beats paid. Good beats evil.
- Umair Haque 
No matter who you are, most of the smartest people work for someone else.
- Bill Joy 
This section collates material related to peer production, P2P Business developments, and P2P Economics issues.
Externally, the business world is engaging/moving towards an adaptation to productive communities, while productive communities are building their own Phyles
We are moving towards Open Business Models, and a commons-oriented global economy. Profit-Maximisation can no longer be contained by pure external state regulation, but needs new forms, that embed the profit function into higher ethical requirements, that are embedded in the very corporate structures, while at the same time, new economic forms are created directly by autonomous productive communities, so that they can maintain their independence.
More here, in our new special section on Economics
Our P2P Business Network
|Verna Allee||Adam Arvidsson||Axel Bruns||Tia Carr||Sam Rose||Georg Pleger|
|verna.allee AT valuenetworks DOT com||adam DOT firstname.lastname@example.org||snurb (at) email@example.com||samuel dot rose at gmail dot com||georg at pleger dot at|
|Matt Cooperrider||Marcin Jakubowski||Michel Bauwens||Marc Dangeard|
|mattcooperrider at gmail dot com||joseph dot dolittle at gmail dot com||michelsub2004 at gmail dot com||marc at dangeard dot com|
Introduction and Visualization
The business cycle for the material economy :
Please note that the issue of physical peer production or "open design communities for physical production" is monitored separately in this section
For inspiration: Principles of Ethical Social Entreprises (Franco Papeschi & Tory Dunn)
What we Know about Open/Free and Commons-Based Business Models
More here, in our new section on Open Business Models
Comparative Table: The Logic of the Market versus the Logic of the Commons
What can I sell?Exchange value
What do we need?Use value
|Homo oeconomicus||Homo cooperans|
|It's about resources (allocation).||It's about us.|
|Governance||Market-State||Polycentric / Peer-to-Peer Governance|
|Command (Power, Law, Violence)||Consensus, Free Cooperation, self-organization|
|Social relationships||Centralization of power (monopoly)||
Decentralization of power(autonomy)
|Access to rival resources||Limited by boundaries & rules defined by owner||Limited by boundaries & rules defined by usergroups|
|Access to nonrival resources||Made scarce (to ensure profitability)||Open access (to ensure social equity)|
|Use rights||Granted by owner||Co-decided by user groups|
|For the resources||
Conservation Reproduction & Multiplication
|For the people||Exlusion & Participation||Inclusion & Emancipation|
A map with a conceptual overview of the peer to peer business space. Every concept in the map is searchable via our wiki search box on the upper left.
- the New Economy mindmap
- a really superb introduction to the new economy in prezi by Arthur Brock: http://prezi.com/xmzld_-wayho/new-economy-new-wealth/
Key External Articles
See: P2P Videos on Business and Economics, list compiled in 2008
Here's a primer on economimc growth, that every economist and business person should watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sqwd_u6HkMo&feature=player_embedded#
On the Monopolization of the Internet
" As we enter 2015, 13 of the 33 most valuable corporations in the United States are internet firms, and nearly all of them enjoy monopolistic market power as economists have traditionally used the term. If you continue to scan down the list there are precious few internet firms to be found. There is not much of a middle class or even an upper-middle class of internet corporations to be found. This poses a fundamental problem for democracy, though it is one that mainstream commentators and scholars appear reluctant to acknowledge: If economic power is concentrated in a few powerful hands you have the political economy for feudalism, or authoritarianism, not democracy."
- Robert McChesney 
Competing 'on top' of the Commons
"One of the best ways to stimulate competition, innovation and lower prices is for participants in a market to honor the commons (a shared pool of resources, a minimal set of safety or performance standards) and then to compete "on top" of the commons. Instead of being able to reap easy profits from monopoly control over something everyone needs -- say, a computer operating system like Windows -- a company must work harder to "add value" in more specialized ways."
Obtaining Economic Advantage through Serving and Sharing
"The future of advantage is radically different from the past for a simple reason: because it's economically better. 20th century advantage focuses firms on simply extracting resources from people, communities and society — and then protecting what they extract. 21st century advantage focuses firms on creating new resources, and allocating them better. The former is useful only to shareholders and managers — but the latter is useful to people, communities, and society. The old Microsoft was useful to shareholders, but a lot less useful to society — and that's exactly how Google and Apple attacked it, and won."
Umair Haque 
The Sharing Economy should be distinguished from the Monetary Economy
"... the quest for self-determination and meaningful and memorable experiences ultimately will hinge on people's understanding that they are not merely consuming a product, but that they are actually participating in a meaningful social process not guided by an extrinsic logic (profit), something that rather has intrinsic, or 'sovereign' value. I don't believe that these two can be fused into one
- Eric Kluitenberg, iDC archive 
Market Logic vs. Network Logic
"The philosophy that undergirds exchange also contrasts sharply across forms. In markets the standard strategy is to drive the hardest possible bargain in the immediate exchange. In networks, the preferred option is often one of creating indebtedness and reliance over the long haul. Each approach thus devalues the other: prosperous market traders would be viewed as petty and untrustworthy shysters in networks, while successful participants in networks who carried those practices into competitive markets would be viewed as foolish and naive... In a market context, it is clear to everyone concerned when a debt has been discharged, but such matters and not nearly as obvious in networks."
- Walter Powell - "Niether Market Nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization" 1990
From Profit-Maximization and Market-Orientation to Mission-Focused
Profit maximizing limits access to knowledge, by limiting it to paying customers. If anyone thinks this is just a side-effect of today's market incentives, then we can put the situation differently: Profit maximizing doesn't always limit access to knowledge, but is always ready to do so if it pays better. This proposition has a darker corollary: Profit maximizing doesn't always favor untruth, but is always ready to do so if it would pay better. ... Instead of hypnotically granting the primacy of markets in all sectors, as if there were no exceptions, we should remember that many organizations compromise profits or relinquish revenues in order to foster their missions, and that we all benefit from their dedication. Which institutions and sectors ought to do so, and how should we protect and support them to pursue their missions? Instead of smothering these questions for offending the religion of markets, we should open them for wider discussion.
- Peter Suber 
Markets without Money
"Money is a very important and useful medium of exchange for high-value, tangible products. For small-value, intangible products, the costs tend to exceed the value of the transactions—especially when you add in the overhead associated with making payments at a distance. Fortunately, human beings are clever. We’ve begun to find a variety of substitutes for money that work better."
- Tim Lee 
Social Commerce and the Intention Economy
"only 13% of consumers say they buy products because of their ads. Contrast that to 60% of small business owners in North America that say they use peer recommendations to make their buying decisions and over 70% of 18-35 year olds who report the same for their media purchases."
- Tara Hunt 
Monetization vs. Community value creation
"When you try and "monetize your users", you accept the almost obscene assumption that people are meant to be pimped out, sold to the highest bidder, resources to be slashed, burned, and exploited. But that's not how the edgeconomy works. Businesses need what connected consumers have to give more than connected consumers need what businesses have to sell.
Let's put that a little more formally. Monetization is ugly because it blinds us to the truth that value must flow in many directions. That's the essence of edge strategy, in fact."
- Umair Haque 
The New Social Capitalism
"Capitalism takes a narrow view of human nature, assuming that people are one dimensional beings concerned only with the pursuit of maximum profit. The concept of the free market, as generally understood, is based on this one- dimensional human being. Mainstream freemarket theory postulates that you are contributing to the society and the world in the best possible manner if you just concentrate on getting the most for yourself. [...] The presence of our multi- dimensional personalities means that not every business should be bound to serve the single objective of profit maximization"
= Muhammad Yunus 
The P2P Business Encyclopedia
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