This section covers both 1) the organizational microscale formats or methods used to govern peer production, FLOSS, and other non-coercive methods of governance; 2) the evolution on a macro-scale towards the dominance of collaborative networks
This section is maintained by Michel Bauwens and adheres to Connective Hypothesis, i.e. The key organizing pattern of our global culture is shifting from a top-down hierarchical pyramid to a distributed, self-organizing network. 
For an understanding of the specificities of Peer Governance, we strongly recommend the following book: Cyberchiefs. Autonomy and Authority in Online Tribes. Mathieu O’Neil. Macmillan/Pluto Press, 2009.
For the governance of the Global Commons of humanity, we advocate replacing the scarcity-engineering of neoliberal markets by the abundance engineering of the Commons: see the Abundance - Typology and the Wealth Typology. Policy concepts and proposals are maintained here.
For the approach of the P2P Foundation, see: Michel Bauwens: Peer Governance as a Third Mode of Governance
(this area is under construction: the Encyclopedia items related to governance have been ported until but not including M)
- Please read the following excerpts of David Ronfeldt on the Evolution of Governance
- You may want to read this important discussion document by Erik Douglas, Peer to Peer and the Four Pillars of Democracy, which examines the relationship between Peer Governance and representative democracy.
- Henry Mintzberg's Taxonomy of Organizational Forms, is good as backgrounder.
- Billy Matheson's graphical representation on how relationality may or will affect governance
- Felix Stadler insists: The Governance of Peer Production is Meritocratic, not Egalitarian
- In a P2P context, we may want to replace or augment Personality Driven Governance Systems by Governance Systems Based on Idea and Action Amplification (i.e. Governance by User Groups). More from Heather Marsh at: How a Stigmergy of Actions Replaces Representation of Persons
19 Transitional Institutions for the P2P Civilisation
According to Dave Pollard:
"Joanna Macy's book Coming Back to Life has the following list (the last six items are my own additions):" 
Jim Spohrer has an ordering of systems into three levels:
Institutional Proposals for Global Governance
Peter Suber: From Profit-Maximization and Market-Orientation to Mission-Focused
Profit maximizing limits access to knowledge, by limiting it to paying customers. If anyone thinks this is just a side-effect of today's market incentives, then we can put the situation differently: Profit maximizing doesn't always limit access to knowledge, but is always ready to do so if it pays better. This proposition has a darker corollary: Profit maximizing doesn't always favor untruth, but is always ready to do so if it would pay better. ... Instead of hypnotically granting the primacy of markets in all sectors, as if there were no exceptions, we should remember that many organizations compromise profits or relinquish revenues in order to foster their missions, and that we all benefit from their dedication. Which institutions and sectors ought to do so, and how should we protect and support them to pursue their missions? Instead of smothering these questions for offending the religion of markets, we should open them for wider discussion. (http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/newsletter/03-02-10.htm#missions)
"The professional co-option of community efforts to invent appropriate techniques for citizens to care in community has been pervasive. Therefore, we need to identify the characteristics of those social forms that are resistant to colonization by service technologies while enabling communities to cultivate and care. These authentic social forms are characterized by three basic dimensions: they tend to be uncommodified, unmanaged, and uncurricularized. The tools of the bereavement counselor make grief into a commodity rather than an opportunity for community. Service technologies convert conditions into commodities and care into service.
The tools of the manager convert communality into hierarchy, replacing consent with control. Where once there was a commons, the manager creates a corporation. The tools of the pedagogue create monopolies in the place of cultures. By making a school of every-day life, community definitions and citizen action are degraded and finally expelled. It is this hard-working team—the service professional, the manager, and the pedagogue—that pulls the tools of "community busting" through the modern social landscape. If we are to recultivate community, we will need to return this team to the stable, abjuring their use." (http://www.smallisbeautiful.org/lec-mck.html)
“The cyber-solution to this governance dilemma is to fight the constraint that produces all the tensions: scarcity. Abundance trumps governance. There is no need to worry about resource allocation when there are more than enough resources to go around. And those who find their norms ill-served can choose a more suitable environment, because the costs of forming new groups and institutions are so low.
The good news is that cyberspace – if we let it – can be the greatest engine of abundance the world has ever known. From the billions of search clicks that Google pairs with targeted text ads to the millions of WiFi devices using shared wireless spectrum to the hundreds of thousands of books along Amazon.com’s long tail, abundance is the driving force of the Internet economy. It should be an abiding goal of Internet governance as well. Furthering the historical analogy, it was territorial expansion, to the Western edge of the continent and beyond, that channeled and checked the tensions of the nascent American constitutional republic.
If cyberspace is to be well-governed, therefore, it must grow. We must resist the temptation to look back nostalgically to the frontier homesteading days, when norms dominated because so many of them were shared. Let us, as David urges, embrace the Internet’s wondrous chaos. At the same time, though, let us sing the praises of its well-designed rules. The shared enemy is not structure, but exclusivity and other barriers to choice and connectivity.“ (http://publius.cc/2008/05/13/kevin-werbach-steering-to-the-edge-of-trust/)
"If concentration of power has contributed to poor governance, the solution must lie in dispersing power… ICTs empower from below while devolving power from above, resulting in a two-pronged attack on abuse of state power that has left so much of the world’s population languishing in poverty… ICTs can be the means to both freedom and development by blindsiding obstacles to both." (http://p2pfoundation.ning.com/profile/TomCrowl)
"Today, people with power and influence derive their power from their centrality within self-organizing networks that might or might not correspond to any plan on the part of designated leaders. Organization structure in vanguard companies involves multi-directional responsibilities, with an increasing emphasis on horizontal relationships rather than vertical reporting as the center of action that shapes daily tasks and one’s portfolio of projects, in order to focus on serving customers and society. Circles of influence replace chains of command, as in the councils and boards at Cisco which draw from many levels to drive new strategies. Distributed leadership — consisting of many ears to the ground in many places — is more effective than centralized or concentrated leadership." (http://blogs.harvardbusiness.org/kanter/2009/11/power-to-the-connectors.html)
The Era of the Globalisation of People
“Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. As analysed by Thomas Friedman in The World Is Not Flat, in the 16th and 17th centuries empires became global, whereas in the 20th century it was companies that became global, and the differential factor is that since the end of the millennium, ten years ago, it is people who are becoming global. And again it is a third technological revolution that is promoting the transformation: the revolution promoted by new information and communication technologies, of which the internet is the most transformative expression.”
- Josu Jon Imaz 
The entries in the directory below covers different aspects which should be distinguished from each other.
Key Blog Entries
Check out the Archive of the P2P Foundation blog on P2P Hierarchy Theory, for a full record on our articles.
Key Delicious Tags
Key Graphical Representations
Compiled by David Ronfeldt :
Read his summary: A Spectrum of Politics and Governance Grounded in Empowered Citizen Dialogue and Deliberation, 
. If you know French, this is highly recommended.
Multimedia in the Governance Category
The following lists contain the 5 most recent multimedia articles in the Governance Category.
- After the Nation State
- Reinventing Organizations
- Collective Action After Networks
- Black Box Society
- Ecopolitical Nation
- Five Lessons on Peer-to-Peer Leadership from Peer-to-Peer Computer Networks
- Role of Crowdsourcing for Better Governance in Fragile States Contexts
- Real-Time Organigraphs for Collaboration Awareness
- Rule by Algorithm, Big Data and the Threat of Algocracy
- How Network Governance Adds Value
- Multistakeholder Internet Dialogue
- How Does Technology Change the Balance of Power in Society
- Indymedia - Governance
- Tribes, Institutions, Markets, Networks
- Jeanette Hofmann on Wikipedia between Emancipation and Self-Regulation
- Chris Marsden and Ian Brown on Better Regulation in the Information Age
- David Bollier on Green Governance and the Law of the Commons
- Jean-Paul Faguet on Governance from Below or Decentralization in Bolivia
- Rod Collins on Wiki Management in Corporations
- Trust vs. Sanctions in Digital Communities
- Dilar Dirik on Liberating Democracy from the State in Syria's Kurdish Enclaves
- Rachel Botsman on Connected Communities as the Institutions of the Twenty-First Century
- Michel Bauwens on the FLOK Society Transition Project in Ecuador
- Theory and Practice in the Management of Natural Commons
- Marina Gorbis on Evolving from Social Technologies to Social Organizations
The P2P Governance Encyclopedia
This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
Pages in category "Governance"
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